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Electrical and Electronic Engineering BEng (Hons)

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Module EN0310 - Power Systems

(20.00 Credits)


This module aims to study the components and operation of modern power systems, highlighting the principles of operation, design, economics of power generation, frequency and voltage control, quality of supply, performance limits and protection from abnormal conditions.
Assessment is made in the module thought an unseen closed book examination and an assignment. Formative assessment is made during the seminar sessions to guide the student thought the module.


WEEDY, B.M. and CORY B.J. "Electric Power Systems" (Wiley) 1998. ISBN 0471916595

GRAINGER J. J. and STEVENSON W. D. "Power System Analysis", McGraw-Hill 1994. ISBN 0070612935.

WRIGHT A. and CHRISTOPOULOS C. "Electrical Power System Protection" 2nd edition, Kluwer academic publishers 1999. ISBN-10: 0412817608.

HIGORANI N.G. and GYUGYI L. " Understanding FACTS: Concepts and Technology" IEEE Press, 2000. ISBN 0780334558

El-Hawary M.E. "Electrical Power Systems, Design and Analysis" IEEE Press 1995. ISBN 078031140X

NASAR S.A. "Electric Power Systems", (McGraw-Hill), 1999. ISBN 0070459177


Synchronous Machines:
Cylindrical-rotor type: Construction, machine mmfs, synchronous reactance, equivalent circuit, motor and generator treatment. Excitation requirements. Operation in parallel with a large system, Synchronisation. Power-angle equation and Power chart.
Salient-pole type: Construction. Two-axis theory, power-angle relationships.
The reactance of a synchronous machine. Current-time variation of synchronous generator current following a 3- phase short circuit.

Transmission Lines:
Short, medium and long transmission line representation. Surge Impedance Loading. Use of shunt and series reactive power compensation.

Load Flow Analysis:
Active and reactive power flow: basic relationships. Control and power chart. Improvement of voltage levels by the injection of VArs. Numerical methods and use of computer software to determine power flow and voltage distribution in electric power networks.

Fault current calculations:
Fundamentals of symmetrical fault-level calculations.
Symmetrical components theory. Calculation of currents and voltages in simple networks for unbalanced faults. Effect of transformer connections on the flow of zero sequence currents. Fault current limitation.

System Stability:
Distinction between steady state, dynamic and transient stability. Power limits during steady-state and transient operation. Generator rotor dynamics, swing curve and the equal area criterion. Methods of increasing stability limits.

System Control and economic operation:
Operating principles of governors. Control of frequency in power networks. The role of the digital computers in system control.
Load sharing in a group of generators running in parallel. Incremental cost.

Reliability and Quality of supply:
Load characteristics. Security of supply and Security Recommendations. Voltage fluctuations and control. Pollution of supply by harmonics, effects, solutions and statutory requirements.

Power System Protection and Switchgear:
Detection and clearance of faults. Protective current and voltage transformers. Over-current, differential and distance protection. Protection of generators, transformers and feeders. Comparison of unit and non-unit types of protection.
Circuit breakers: Short-circuit current. Recovery voltage, Restriking transient. Rating.
Reclosing. Types.

Emerging technologies in power systems
Fundamentals of Flexible A.C. Transmission System (FACTS); Custom Power Technology; Embedded Generation; Renewable Energy resources and photovoltaic systems.


1. To develop knowledge, understanding and the ability to analyse the components of a modern power system including embedded generation, FACTS and custom power technology.
2. To enable the student to analyse the performance of an integrated power system in both the steady-state and following system disturbances. Abnormal conditions such as faults are highlighted and means for protection against them are investigated.
3. To extend the student's knowledge of the important concepts of stability, active and reactive power control, reliability of a power system and quality of supply.


The student will be able to:
1. Demonstrate an evaluate of the theory of operation, control and the properties of alternators, transmission lines, switchgear and protection systems,
2. Perform fault-level calculations for a power system enabling the correct switchgear to be selected,
3. Formulate numerical methods and use software packages to determine power flow and voltage levels in a power system,
4. Critically analyse how power systems are controlled with respect to the flow of active and reactive power, voltage levels, and economic load dispatching,
5. Summarise the principles of power system stability and methods for improving it, including the use of FACTS devices,
6. Analyse disturbances in power systems, their effects on the quality of supply and recommend appropriate solutions.


EN0215 Power, Machines and Instrumentation or equivalent knowledge






The theory, analytical and design procedures of power systems will be thoroughly investigated in formal lectures. In seminar classes and assignment, practical problems will be examined and analysed. In addition, examples of real system design will be introduced and performed on a small scale. The assignment will enhance the student theoretical knowledge and expose them to the new technologies in computer-aided design and analysis of power systems.
Recommend books for the unit (see below) will be used to support the learning process.

This module will be assessed by an assignment (20%) and an unseen closed book examination (80%).
The assignment includes the design and analysis of a small power network by using an industry standard software package. The assignment is a prime example of early formative feedback to students in preparation for the examination. Furthermore, the seminar session are used to provide formative feedback to the student throughout the module.
The examination is a sectioned paper with 8 questions set and student has to attempt 5 with minimum of 2 from each section.




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