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Research Themes and Scholarly Interests

My main research work at Aerospace Medicine and Rehabilitation Laboratory aims at developing countermeasures to keep the human musculoskeletal system in healthy conditions during long space missions and during exposure to Mars and Moon gravity.


Key Publications

  • Please visit the Pure Research Information Portal for further information
  • Effectiveness of exercise countermeasures for the prevention of musculoskeletal deconditioning in simulated hypogravity: A systematic review, Swain, P., Laws, J., De Martino, E., Wotring, V., Caplan, N., Winnard, A. 10 May 2021, In: Acta Astronautica
  • Intermittent short-arm centrifugation is a partially effective countermeasure against upright balance deterioration following 60-day head-down tilt bed rest, De Martino, E., Salomoni, S., Hodges, P., Hides, J., Lindsay, K., Debuse, D., Winnard, A., Elliott, J., Hoggarth, M., Beard, D., Cook, J., Ekman, R., Hinterwaldner, L., Scott, J., Weber, T., Caplan, N. 1 Aug 2021, In: Journal of Applied Physiology
  • Lumbar muscle atrophy and increased relative intramuscular lipid concentration are not mitigated by daily artificial gravity after 60-day head-down tilt bed rest, De Martino, E., Hides, J., Elliott, J., Hoggarth, M., Zange, J., Lindsay, K., Debuse, D., Winnard, A., Beard, D., Cook, J., Salomoni, S., Weber, T., Scott, J., Hodges, P., Caplan, N. Jul 2021, In: Journal of Applied Physiology
  • Pain and Disability in Low Back Pain can be Reduced despite No Significant Improvements in Mechanistic Pain Biomarkers, Palsson, T., Christensen, S., De Martino, E., Graven-Nielsen, T. 1 May 2021, In: Clinical Journal of Pain
  • Slowing in peak-alpha frequency recorded after experimentally-induced muscle pain is not significantly different between high and low pain-sensitive subjects, De Martino, E., Gregoret, L., Zandalasini, M., Graven-Nielsen, T. 26 Jun 2021, In: Journal of Pain
  • Effects of a six-week exercise intervention on function, pain and lumbar multifidus muscle cross-sectional area in chronic low back pain: A proof-of-concept study, Lindsay, K., Caplan, N., Weber, T., Salomoni, S., De Martino, E., Winnard, A., Scott, J., Young, E., Hides, J., Hodges, P., Debuse, D. 1 Oct 2020, In: Musculoskeletal Science and Practice
  • Hypogravity reduces trunk admittance and lumbar muscle activation in response to external perturbations, De Martino, E., Salomoni, S., Winnard, A., McCarty, K., Lindsay, K., Riazati, S., Weber, T., Scott, J., Green, D., Hides, J., Debuse, D., Hodges, P., Van Dieën, J., Caplan, N. Apr 2020, In: Journal of Applied Physiology
  • High frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex modulates sensorimotor cortex function in the transition to sustained muscle pain, De Martino, E., Seminowicz, D., Schabrun, S., Petrini, L., Graven-Nielsen, T. 1 Feb 2019, In: NeuroImage
  • Sessions of Prolonged Continuous Theta Burst Stimulation or High-frequency 10 Hz Stimulation to Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex for 3 Days Decreased Pain Sensitivity by Modulation of the Efficacy of Conditioned Pain Modulation, De Martino, E., Fernandes, A., Galhardoni, R., De Oliveira Souza, C., Ciampi De Andrade, D., Graven-Nielsen, T. 1 Dec 2019, In: Journal of Pain
  • Cortical Somatosensory Excitability Is Modulated in Response to Several Days of Muscle Soreness, De Martino, E., Petrini, L., Schabrun, S., Graven-Nielsen, T. 1 Nov 2018, In: Journal of Pain

PGR Supervision

Patrick Swain Potential Countermeasures for the Prevention of Musculoskeletal Deconditioning in Partial Gravity Start Date: 14/04/2021

Further Information

In 2009, I graduated in Medicine and Surgery with a grade of 110/110 “cum laude” at the University of Siena (Italy), obtaining the qualification of Medical Doctor. From 2010 to 2015, I enrolled at the School of Specialization in Sport and Exercise Medicine, University of Florence, obtaining the qualification of Sports Physician. Since the beginning of my clinical training, I focused my learning on the assessment and the treatment of the disorders of the musculoskeletal system, on the use of the musculoskeletal ultrasound imaging and the ultrasound-guided interventions. In 2013, these skills produced an intensive collaboration with the Italian Swimming Federation aimed at developing the application of rehabilitative ultrasound imaging in sports rehabilitation and injury prevention in elite athletes. From 2014, I worked as an occupational trainee at the Center of Clinical Research Excellence in Spine Pain, University of Queensland (Australia), where I have trained to use intramuscular electromyography of the trunk muscles and kinematic evaluation of the trunk movement. In October 2015, I have been enrolled as a PhD fellow in CNAP, Aalborg University (Denmark). My research project aimed at probing the nature and the time-course of cortical neuroplastic changes provoked by muscle pain across several days and at modulating the cortical pain neuroplasticity by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. In parallel with my PhD project, I have contributed in developing two research projects: Parabolic flight (Inter-Agency Partial Gravity Campaign, Bordeaux, 2018) and Bed-rest study (joint ESA/NASA Artificial Gravity Study, Cologne, 2019), in collaboration with European Space Agency (Space Medicine Office) and Northumbria University (Aerospace Medicine and Rehabilitation Laboratory). These projects aimed at developing countermeasures to maintain the human spine in healthy conditions during long-space missions.


  • Medicine PhD March 11 2019
  • Medicine MBChB(Hons) June 24 2009
  • Sports Physician 2010

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