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Third Manifesto

The Third Manifesto is a specification of what a fully-fledged, modern relational database system should be, writen by Chris J. Date and Hugh Darwen.

RAQUEL is the name of a relational database programming language and the name of the database management system that executes that language. It is an open source project, currently in development. When complete, it will execute the Third Manifesto specification in its entirety. More information about the project can be found at The RAQUEL DBMS Website.

In June 2011, Northumbria University hosted the Third Manifesto Implementers' Workshop. Speakers presented topics concerning the implementation of Third Manifesto concepts in Relational Database Management Systems and in other software.

(PDF files of speakers' presentation slides and notes will open in a new window) 

Recollections of the BS12 DBMS (Hugh Darwen)

Hugh gave an account of the language, and what he could remember of the implementation of the DBMS, Business System 12, developed thirty years ago for IBM's time-sharing "Bureau Service". (Presentation and Notes)


View Updating (Chris Date)

View updating has long been a contentious issue; numerous approaches have been described in the literature, and it is widely believed that certain views will never be updatable.  The presentation given by Chris challenged this opinion and offered detailed thoughts toward a systematic solution to the problem. (Presentation)


The Implementation of Dee – Progress & Ideas (Greg Gaughan)

Greg gave an overview of Dee, an implementation of a D in Python. Reviewing its origins and syntax and introducing some features included in the next version. (Presentation)

 Transition Constraint Implementation (Adrian Hudnott)

How to have enforceable transition constraints and retain distinct INSERT, DELETE and UPDATE operators, with applications for referential and compensatory actions, triggered procedures and database security. (Presentation and Notes)

Efficient Implementation of Multiple Assignments (Adrian Hudnott)

Optimizing the assignment operator and multiple simultaneous updates to relvars. (Presentation)

Efficient Verification of Declarative Integrity Constraints (Renaud de Landtsheer)

Renauld gave a talk about presenting a hobby development. The software aims at generating triggers from integrity constraints. These triggers are optimized to perform incremental verification of the integrity constraints. It supports first order with equality as input language for specifying the integrity constraints. (Presentation)

The Open Architecture of the RAQUEL DBMS (David Livingstone)

David presented a review of the DBMS architecture that implements RAQUEL, a language qualifying as a valid D developed at Northumbria University.  (Presentation, Notes

Third Manifesto Concerns (David Livingstone)

  Feedback about concerns arising from implementing The Third Manifesto via the RAQUEL DBMS.  (Presentation and Notes

Assignment Transition Constraints in DBMS Security (Erwin Smout) (Presentation and Notes)

Dispensing with Data Definition Languages (Erwin Smout)

(Presentation and Notes)



What our contributors thought about the workshop:

Chris Date : “Thanks again for organizing what I think was a very worthwhile event.  I look forward to future iterations”.
Hugh Darwen : “The university did a splendid job for the workshop.  The arrangements and hospitality were outstanding”.
Greg Gaughan : "Thank you again for organising the TTM workshop -  I found it very useful, and have a whole list of notes to work on and investigate further."

Third Manifesto links:

The Third Manifesto Website


The Dee Website

The SIRA_PRISE Website

The Rel Website