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Jenny’s research draws on various social psychological theories, including intergroup contact theory, social identity theory, and intergroup emotions theory, to examine the causes and consequences of prejudice to inform real life interventions to reduce the harms of hate and intolerance. As prejudice permeates every facet of society, Jenny has researched many forms of prejudice but, for simplicity, her research can be broadly described as examining two distinct but often complementary themes: prejudice towards love and the impacts of hate.

Prejudice towards love

Jenny has investigated prejudice towards a range of romantic relationship choices, including interracial dating in the UK (Paterson, Turner, & Conner, 2015, JASP) and inter-religious dating in Northern Ireland (Paterson, Turner, & Hodson, 2019, JASP). Capitalising on the media frenzy around Prince Harry and Meghan’s interracial relationship, Jenny and her colleagues have also examined how high-profile interracial relationships can impact people’s attitudes and receptivity to dating, marrying, and having children with racial outgroup members (Paterson, Hodson, & Turner, 2023, JASP). This aspect of her research is intended to draw attention to, and better understand, when and why people are prejudiced towards others’ romantic choices. Such an understanding will help develop interventions to reduce this prejudice, thereby empowering people to make their own relationship choices, free from prejudicial social pressure.

 Impacts of hate

Working with colleagues from the Sussex Hate Crime Project, Jenny has published extensively on the indirect impacts of hate crime. Through this research she has shown that hate crimes not only disproportionately impact victims directly involved in the crimes, such incidents send messages of intolerance throughout entire communities (Walters, Paterson, Brown, & McDonnell, 2017, JIV). These effects are felt more acutely than comparable non-hate crimes (Paterson, Brown, & Walters, 2019, BJSP), affect all sections of diverse communities (Paterson, Brown, & Walters, 2018, TPM; Walters, Paterson, McDonnell, & Brown, 2019, IRV), are relatively long lasting (Paterson, Brown, & Walters, 2019, PSPB), and impact individuals’ support for restorative justice (Walters, Paterson, & Brown, 2020, BJC). Furthermore, leading a British Academy funded project involving Prof Mark Walters (Sussex) and Lisa Hall (Northumbria), Jenny has shown that LGBT+ people provide overwhelming empathy and help to victims of anti-LGBT+ crimes because of their shared ingroup identities (Paterson, Walters, & Hall, 2023, JIV). This body of research has helped underpin the introduction of victims impact statements for hate crimes (CPS) and was widely cited in the All Party Parliamentary Group’s Report on Hate Crime, as well as the Law Commission's Review in to Hate Crime legislation.

Additional themes

Due to the prevalence of prejudice, Jenny has been invited onto a range of diverse projects to tackle prejudice in many different areas. For example, she has worked with midwives to develop proposals to reduce prejudice towards LGBT+ parents within the NHS; with computer scientists to reduce online hate; and Campus Services to increase reporting of hate crime on campus. Working with Dr Daniel Jolley, Jenny has also examined the role of conspiracy beliefs in predicting violence during Covid (Jolley & Paterson, 2020, BJSP), its role in predicting non-normative political action (e.g., tax avoidance; Jolley, Paterson, & Thomas, 2023), and its impacts on targeted groups (Jolley, Paterson, & McNeill 2023).

Current projects and future plans

Jenny continues to work on the themes outlined above, including researching attitudes and receptivity to a range of marginalised relationships (e.g., interracial, interreligious, LGBT+ relationships), while also examining and alleviating the harms of different manifestations of prejudice (e.g., hate crimes, conspiracy beliefs).

Expanding on and combining these themes, Jenny is developing a research programme to examine prejudice towards single people (known as singlism). The research intends to examine why this often-overlooked form of prejudice occurs (e.g., ideologies about couples), what it looks like (e.g., from microaggressions to legal discrimination), the impacts of the prejudice (e.g., psychological, financial), how to tackle it (e.g., increasing empathy, changing norms), and how to support those who are targeted (e.g., raising awareness, developing a positive, protective group identity).

If you are interested in working with Jenny on any of the themes outlined above, please contact her at

  • Please visit the Pure Research Information Portal for further information
  • Ingroup Empathy, Help and Blame After Anti-LGBT+ Hate Crime, Paterson, J., Walters, M., Hall, L. 1 Feb 2024, In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
  • The impact of conspiracy beliefs on a targeted group: Perceived popularity of Jewish-targeted conspiracy beliefs elicits outgroup avoidant behaviours, Jolley, D., Paterson, J., McNeill, A. 1 May 2024, In: British Journal of Psychology
  • When Harry met Meghan (got married, had a baby, and “Megxited”): Intergroup anxiety, ingroup norms, and racialized categorization as predictors of receptivity to interracial romances, Paterson, J., Hodson, G., Turner, R. 1 Jan 2024, In: Journal of Applied Social Psychology
  • Refusing to Pay Taxes: Loneliness, Conspiracy Theorising and Non-Normative Political Action, Jolley, D., Paterson, J., Thomas, R. 1 Sep 2023, In: Social Psychology
  • Enhancing punishment or repairing harms? Perceptions of sentencing hate crimes amongst members of a commonly targeted victim group, Walters, M., Paterson, J., Brown, R. 1 Jan 2021, In: British Journal of Criminology
  • Hate Crimes Against Trans People: Assessing Emotions, Behaviors, and Attitudes Toward Criminal Justice Agencies, Walters, M., Paterson, J., Brown, R., McDonnell, L. 1 Nov 2020, In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
  • Pylons ablaze: Examining the role of 5G COVID-19 conspiracy beliefs and support for violence, Jolley, D., Paterson, J. 1 Jul 2020, In: British Journal of Social Psychology
  • Feeling for and as a group member: Understanding LGBT victimization via group-based empathy and intergroup emotions, Paterson, J., Brown, R., Walters, M. 1 Jan 2019, In: British Journal of Social Psychology
  • Group identity, empathy and shared suffering: Understanding the ‘community’ impacts of anti-LGBT and Islamophobic hate crimes, Walters, M., Paterson, J., McDonnell, L., Brown, R. 3 Mar 2019, In: International Review of Victimology
  • Receptivity to dating and marriage across the religious divide in Northern Ireland: The role of intergroup contact, Paterson, J., Turner, R., Hodson, G. 1 Sep 2019, In: Journal of Applied Social Psychology

Ali Titiz Examining the Effects of Emotion Regulation Strategies on Intergroup Reconciliation Attitudes in Post-Conflict Contexts Start Date: 09/11/2023

  • Psychology PhD March 01 2013
  • Psychology MA May 01 2008
  • Psychology May 01 2006

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