Skip navigation

Prof Billy Clark


Department: Humanities

Professor Billy Clark leads research in linguistics at Northumbria University. His research interests are all concerned with aspects of meaning and communicative interaction, often from the perspective of relevance theory. He has applied ideas from relevance theory in considering the meanings of lexical, syntactic and prosodic forms, phatic communication, multimodal communication, and semantic change. His work on stylistics explores the role of pragmatic inference and other processes in the production, interpretation and evaluation of literary and non-literary texts. He is currently working on projects which explore the role of pragmatics in the construction and attribution of identities and the application of ideas from pragmatics in understanding the practice and teaching of writing.

He has been involved in several projects which focus on the relationships between activities at school and at university, including the United Kingdom Linguistics Olympiad and the Integrating English project. With the Integrating English team, he runs the LangLitLab , which offers research digests and other resources for teachers, and Mesh, a journal publishing work by current and recent undergraduate students of English. He has also offered consultancy and CPD sessions for GCSE and A Level awarding bodies.

Before joining Northumbria, Billy worked and taught at Middlesex University, Goldsmiths' College, the University of Oxford, and University College London. He has been a visiting lecturer at the University of Cambridge, University College London and the University of Lille. He is currently involved in teaching at all levels from Foundation Year to PhD. He has also worked with students in secondary schools, including delivering a residential course on linguistics for AS and A Level Students for the Villiers Park Educational Trust.


Billy Clark

Campus Address

Office: Lipman 418

Research Themes and Scholarly Interests

My research interests include aspects of:

  • linguistic semantics
  • pragmatics
  • prosodic meaning
  • stylistics
  • multimodal meaning
  • semantic change
  • linguistics applied in speaking and writing

These interests are connected by a focus on aspects of linguistic and non-linguistic meaning.

Much of my research involves exploring and applying ideas from relevance theory. My textbook Relevance Theory was published by Cambridge University Press in 2013 and an introduction to pragmatics, Pragmatics: The Basics, will be published by Routledge in 2021. I have edited three collections and published a number of chapters and articles on aspects of semantics and pragmatics, and on pragmatic stylistics, a field which has grown considerably in recent years.

I have been a member of the AHRC Peer Review College, I have been a member of several journal editorial boards, and I have acted as reviewer for several other research councils and publishers. I am currently a member of editorial boards for the book series Cambridge Elements in Pragmatics and for the Journal of Linguistics, Journal of Pragmatics and Topics in Linguistics. 



Key Publications

  • Please visit the Pure Research Information Portal for further information
  • Identity inferences: implicatures, implications and extended interpretations, Clark, B. 5 Jan 2021, In: Language and Literature
  • Pragmatics: The Basics, Clark, B. 24 Aug 2021
  • Undergraduate Research in English, Clark, B., Giovanelli, M., Macrae, A. 3 Nov 2020, The Cambridge Handbook of Undergraduate Research, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press
  • “Lazy reading” and “half-formed things”: indeterminacy and responses to Eimear McBride’s A Girl Is A Half-formed Thing, Clark, B. 15 Dec 2019, Pragmatics and Literature, Amsterdam, John Benjamins
  • Manipulating inferences: interpretative problems and their effects on readers, Clark, B. 12 Dec 2019, Stylistic Manipulation of the Reader in Fiction, London, Bloomsbury
  • Pragmatics and Literature, Chapman, S., Clark, B. 15 Dec 2019
  • Relevance, Pragmatics and Interpretation, Scott, K., Clark, B., Carston, R. Jul 2019
  • English After the Post-2015 A Level Reforms: HE Prerequisites and Perspectives., Macrae, A., Clark, B., Giovanelli, M. 2018, In: Changing English
  • Indeterminacy and interpretation: what is shown and what is hidden in Michael Haneke's 'Caché', Clark, B. 14 Aug 2018, Rethinking Language, Text and Context, London, Taylor & Francis
  • Responding to Reform: Responding to reform: how aware are higher education English providers of A level reforms and how have they responded to them?, Giovanelli, M., Clark, B., Macrae, A. 2018, In: English in Education

PGR Supervision

  • Kyu Hyun Park Relevance Theory and the Pragmatics of Production Start Date: 01/03/2018
  • Crispin Chatterjee Start Date: 01/05/2018


  • Linguistics PhD June 30 1991
  • Linguistics PGDip June 30 1986
  • English MA (Hons) June 30 1985

a sign in front of a crowd

Northumbria Open Days

Open Days are a great way for you to get a feel of the University, the city of Newcastle upon Tyne and the course(s) you are interested in.

Research at Northumbria

Research at Northumbria

Research is the life blood of a University and at Northumbria University we pride ourselves on research that makes a difference; research that has application and affects people's lives.

a person sitting at a table

Order your prospectus

If you would like to know more about our courses, or life in general as a student at Northumbria, then we can help you.

Back to top